Articles, Books and Reports

Dean Fixsen, Caryn Ward, Barbara Sims
Initiation of meaningful change in organizations and systems begins with the Exploration Stage of implementation. Exploration Stage processes are designed to assure mutually informed agreement to proceed with use of an innovation; both the Implementation Team and the organization understand what is to be done, how it will be done, and the resources and timelines for doing it.
Dean Fixsen, Terje Ogden
Ensuring that scientific findings bear fruit in terms of successfully employed real-world practical applications is not always an easy task. The challenges inherent in putting research knowledge into practice have contributed to the emergence of the field of implementation research, a young but quickly expanding discipline dealing with the “what,” “how,” and “who” of implementation: What is to be implemented, how is the task to be carried out, and who will do it? Implementation science has grown from an increasing awareness of the “science to service gap,” that is, concern about the often limited success of transferring research-based practices to ordinary service settings in fields as diverse as early childhood education, social services, mental health, employment services, or criminal justice. Awareness of this gap has inspired research efforts and numerous publications on aids and obstacles to successful implementation, and this topical issue of the Zeitschrift für Psychologie aims to contribute to the ongoing development of the field.
Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Allison Metz, Sandra Naoom
Preethy George, Karen Blase, Patrick Kanary, James Wotring, David Bernstein, William Carter
This brief provides recommendations to address the current misalignment of financing and policy directives related to high quality, cost effective evidence-based programs and practices. The brief discusses financing needed for the critical components required to implement an evidence based program or practice, reviews the current funding challenges for the key components of programs and practices, provides rationales modifying this system, and provides specific and summative recommendations related to financing evidence-based practices.
Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Melissa Van Dyke
Making transformative changes in education has risks that are inherent in any change process. The activities within a Transformation Zone can mitigate the risks while building capacity to improve education substantially. This policy brief would be most useful to program administrators and state staff looking at Transformation Zones as a way to chance their organizations to support the implementation of evidence-based practices and other innovations.
Douglas Easterling, Allison Metz
Foundations are increasingly coming to appreciate the importance of strategy. But simply having a strategy – even an explicit strategy – does not guarantee that a foundation will actually achieve its goals. To implement a strategy effectively, a foundation needs to operationalize it in the form of specific functions that staff will carry out and needs to create an organizational infrastructure that supports the strategy. The field of implementation science offers a set of tools for helping foundations address these tasks. After introducing some general principles of implementation science, this article describes in depth the concepts of practice profiles, which translate programs or strategies into specific activities to be carried out by implementation staff, and implementation drivers, which point to organizational factors that determine whether a program or strategy is implemented well enough to achieve its intended outcomes.
Brandi Simonsen, Lucille Eber, Anne Black, George Sugai, Holly Lewandowski, Barbara Sims, Diane Myers
More than 1,000 Illinois schools are implementing school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) to enhance outcomes for students and staff. Consequently, Illinois established layered support structures to facilitate scaling up SWPBS. This paper describes the development of this infrastructure and presents the results of HLM analyses exploring the effects of implementing SWPBS, with and without fidelity across time, on student behavior and academic outcomes (office discipline referrals, suspensions, and state-wide test scores in reading and math) for a sample of 428 Illinois schools implementing SWPBS. Results indicate that (a) most schools implemented with fidelity and maintained or improved student performance across time and (b) implementation fidelity was associated with improved social outcomes and academic outcomes in math. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Allison Metz, Melissa Van Dyke
Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Sandra Naoom, Allison Metz, Laura Louison, Caryn Ward
The following assessments are specific to "best practices' extracted from: 1) the literature, 2) interactions with purveyors who are successfully implementing evidence-based programs on a national scale, 3)in-depth interviews with 64 evidence-based program developers, 4) meta-analyses of the literature on leadership, and 5) analyses of leadership in education (Blase, Fixsen, Naoom, & Wallace, 2005; Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005; Heifetz & Laurie, 1997; Kaiser, Hogan, & Craig, 2008; Naoom, Blase, Fixsen, Van Dyke, & Bailey, 2010; Rhim, Kowal, Hassel, & Hassel, 2007).
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