Training

 
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The effective uses of innovations requires behavior change at the practitioner, supervisory, and administrative support levels. Training and coaching are the principal ways in which behavior change is brought about for carefully selected staff in the beginning stages of implementation and throughout the life of evidence-based practices and programs.  Most skills needed by successful practitioners can be introduced in training but really are learned on the job with the help of a consultant/coach (e.g., craft information, engagement, treatment planning, teaching to concepts, clinical judgment).

The content of training will vary considerably depending upon the evidence-based practice or program, clinical practice guideline, or management strategy that is being implemented.

The methods of training seem to be less variable. There seem to be common approaches to imparting knowledge, skills, and abilities in programs to train practitioners (e.g., Bedlington, Booth, Fixsen, & Leavitt, 1996; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Schoenwald et al, 2000), trainers (e.g., Braukmann & Blase, 1979; Ogden et al., in press), coaches (e.g., Smart, Blase, et al., 1979; Joyce & Showers, 2003), fidelity evaluators (Davis, Warfel, Maloney, Blase, & Fixsen, 1979; Wineman, et al., 1979), and administrators (Baron, Watson, Coughlin, Fixsen, & Phillips, 1979; Atherton, Mbekem, & Nyalusi, 1999).

The common approaches to training include providing information about history, theory, philosophy, and rationales for program components and practices conveyed in lecture and discussion formats.  Lecture and discussion can produce knowledge acquisition and understanding. Skills and abilities related to carrying out the program components and practices can be demonstrated (live or on tape) then followed by behavior rehearsal to practice the skills and receive feedback on the practice (Blase et al., 1984; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Kealey, Peterson, Gaul, & Dinh, 2000).   Practice to criterion means that Day 1 training is over when Day 1 skills have been learned by each participant (Rob Horner, personal communication).

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