Articles, Books and Reports

Sandra Naoom, Frances Wallace, Karen Blase, Michael Haines, Dean Fixsen
This document reports on a concept mapping process conducted with a group of key individuals whose diverse experience and expertise allowed them to provide critical insight into factors that influence or impact the implementation of evidence-based programs or practices. Concept mapping is a mixed-method research technique that combines group brainstorming with individual responses to collect and analyze information from participants. For this project, concept mapping was used to identify factors that influence implementation at the practice, program, or system level when new programs and practices are being implemented.
Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Sandra Naoom, Michael Haines
In the Fall of 2004 a select group of program purveyors of evidence-based programs and practices was invited to a working meeting to explore the "craft knowledge" related to the implementation of evidence-based programs and practices. A "purveyor" is a group of individuals representing a program or practice who actively work to implement that practice or program with fidelity and good effect.
Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Sandra Naoom, Frances Wallace
As the monograph, "Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature," has been read and utilized, people have asked many questions about the purveyor role and wanted to know more about the kinds of activities and supports they might expect from a purveyor. This document hopes to begin the discussion of these issues.
Dean Fixsen, Sandra Naoom, Karen Blase, Robert Friedman, Frances Wallace
Over the past decade, the science related to developing and identifying "evidence-based practices and programs" has improved- however the science related to implementing these programs with fidelity and good outcomes for consumers lag far behind. To this end, our intent is to describe the current state of the science of implementation, and identify what it will take to transmit innovative programs and practices to mental health, social services, juvenile justice, education, early childhood education, employment services, and substance abuse prevention and treatment. This monograph summarizes findings from the review of the research literature on implementation and proposes frameworks for understanding effective implementation processes. The results of this literature review and synthesis confirm that systematic implementation practices are essential to any national attempt to use the products of science - such as evidence-based programs - to improve the lives of its citizens.
Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Allison Metz, Melissa Van Dyke
Implementation science has developed rapidly and has established frameworks for summarizing a variety of influences on intended outcomes. The frameworks are useful for guiding the work of implementation in typical human service practice settings and for generating useful hypotheses for social sciences to explore. Evaluations of successful efforts to make full and effective use of social science innovations to benefit citizens and society have led to rapid expansion of implementation science.
Karen Blase, Dean Fixsen, Barbara Sims, Caryn Ward
Purposeful attention to implementation requires using evidence-based and evidence-informed implementation strategies and frameworks to improve teachers' and administrators' confidence and competence, to create hospitable organization and system environments for new ways of work, and to engage in the right leadership approach for the diverse challenges encountered in any change process (technical or adaptive). In short, attention to implementation science acknowledges that improved education will require attention on two outcomes: implementation outcomes and intervention outcomes. Implementation outcomes focus on changes in teacher and staff behavior as well as changes in the organization and system environment (e.g., administrative guidelines, policy, funding) in order to support better ways of educating students. Student outcomes that are educationally and socially significant must be preceded by implementation outcomes;students cannot benefit from evidence-based instruction they do not receive.
Terje Ogden, Dean Fixsen
The field of implementation research is remarkable in many ways and, even as a young discipline, it has expanded well beyond the expectations of even its most optimistic supporters and stakeholders. In this overview we provide a selective rather than systematic review to serve as a relevant introduction to the field of implementation science. We highlight central concepts, strategies, frameworks, and research outcomes. These highlights draw heavily on the seminal systematic reviews from Brownson, Colditz, and Proctor (2012), Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, and Wallace (2005), and Greenhalgh, Robert, MacFarlane, Bate, and Kyriakidou (2004) and on a thorough comparative review of implementation frameworks conducted by Meyers, Durlak, and Wandersman (2012). Looking ahead to future implementation research, we consider research challenges related to the scaling up of programs, striking a good balance between treatment integrity and local adaptation, measuring implementation quality, and program sustainability.
Dean Fixsen, S. Paine
To achieve lasting success in improving reading achievement, we must achieve initial success. One simply cannot sustain that which has not been achieved. To have initial success one must have practices that work and implement them well. Hence, an understanding of successful implementation processes is essential to understanding sustainability. This brief explores several approaches to implementation and offers guidance on why strong implementation is needed not only for achieving initial success, but also for sustaining improved outcomes over time. This brief is part of a series which addresses various issues related to the sustainability of school-wide reading improvement initiatives, such as Reading First and other evidence-based practices. It is intended for leaders at the school, district, and state levels who are responsible for implementing change to improve student outcomes. The rest of this series addresses other elements related to sustainability and can be found online at http://www.ed.gov/programs/readingfirst/sustaining.html.
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